iv CENTRES OF RADIATION 103 very early types. Professor Osborn has argued that from this early Eutherian stock there were two waves of progress, or,, as he expresses It, <e two great centres of functional radiation." 1 The first was largely ineffective, the second has produced all the Eutherian orders of to-day. These two divisions are termed by him. " Mesoplacentalia" and " Cenoplaeentalia." The first division embraces the Amblypoda and their descendants the Coryphodonts and Dinocerata, many of the Condylarthra, the bulk of the Creodonts and the Tillodonts. These creatures persisted for a time, but died out in the Miocene. They were mainly distinguished by the smallness of their brain; the great specialisation of structure which they exhibit having left that organ unaffected, and therefore tending in the long run to render them unable to cope with changes in the inorganic and organic world. The successful division of the primitive Eutheria com- prises the groups which exist at the present day, and is not connected directly with those small-brained Mesoplacentals; it has apparently originated, however, from the least specialised of their ancestors. Professor Osborn thinks, moreover, that the Lemurs and the Insectivores are persistent descendants of the earlier wave of Eutherian life. It appears in fact as if ISTature had created the existing Ungulate, Unguiculate, and other types on a defective plan, and, instead of mending them to suit more modern requirements, had evolved an entirely new set of similarly-organised types from some of the more ancient and plastic forms remaining over. The Marsupials may be the only group of the early wave remaining, and they have been able to hold their own for the geological reason that Australia was early cut off from communication with the rest of the world. That they are disappearing seems to be shown by their gradual diminution as we pass from Australia towards the continent of Asia, through the islands of the Malay Archipelago. Com- petition has here decimated them, as it may do in the remote future in Australia. It is often said, but with some looseness of statement, that ancient quadrupeds are huger than their modern representatives. This statement is partly true in fact, but largely wrong in implication. For it suggests that—and the suggestion is often expressed in "books that are not authoritative—huge animals 1 Trans. JSTew York Acaet. Set. aciii. 1894, p. 234.